Male Breast Surgery (Gynaecomastia)

Gynaecomastia is enlargement of the male breast tissue. It may occur at any time and there are a number of causes, some physiological and others pathological. Pathological causes involve an imbalance between the activity of androgens (this decreases in levels) and oestrogens (this increases in levels).

Nealry 30% of men get affected by gynaecomastia during their life time. The risk of breast cancer in relation to male breast enlargemnt is small, around 1%. 

Causes of Gynaecomastia


  • Newborn: resolves after a few weeks.

  • Adolescence: This is common around the age of 14, may be unilateral.

  • Increasing age.


  • Lack of testosterone due to congenital absence of testes, androgen resistance, viral orchitis, renal disease and dialysis.

  • Increased oestrogen levels from testicular tumours.

  • Neoplasms producing human chorionic gonad such as Adrenal tumours. liver disease, high thyroid levels, obesity, extreme stress.

  • Medications

  • Idiopathic


  • Blood investigations inlcude blood profies for kidney, liver, thyroid, hormone levels (prolactin, Beta hCG, LH, estradiol, testestrone).
  • Utrasound of the breasts. 
  • Biopsy of the breast

Steps We Take to Reduce Capsular Contracture Rates


Gynaecomastia (sometimes referred to as “man boobs”) is a common condition that causes boys’ and men’s breasts to swell and become larger than normal. It can be transient but often it is not. In Some cases it is important to exclude other causes before embarking on surgery. Once any pathological causes have been exlcuded, surgery can be offered as a treatment

causes of gynaecomastia

Hormone imbalance between the sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen. Medications Some anti-ulcer drugs or medication for heart disease. Illegal drugs – such as cannabis or anabolic steroids. drinking too much alcohol . Testicular conditions such as infection or lumps in the testicles. These need to be investigated urgently.

The procedure

The procedure is usually done under a general anaesthtic, however in some milder cases it is possible to do it under a local anaeshetic or sedation. What gets done depends on the severity. In some milder cases liposuction is sufficient, but will need power assisted. In more advanced cases a cut around the nipple areola complex is needed, and in extreme cases a vertical scar as well.